من صحافة النقل إلى صحافة البيانات

9 مايو، 2016 • آخر المقالاتأبرز المواضيعالصحافة المتخصصةمقالات قصيرةنماذج اقتصاديّة • المحرر(ة)

Article 6

انتشرت صحافة البيانات بفضل تطور استعمالات الانترنت وانعكاساتها على سياق الإنتاج الصحفي  في عصر الإندماج تكنولوجيا المعلومات. وتسعى هذه الصحافة الجديدة إلى تيسير استيعاب المعلومات من قبل الجمهور في ظل التدفق السريع للبيانات عبر قنوات التواصل المعاصرة.

وهوما تؤكده دراسة الدكتور نصر الدين العياضي، باحث بجامعة الجزائر من خلال دراسة مسحيّة للبحوث التي تناولت موضوع تطور وظائف الصحافة عبر التاريخ، بالكشف عن خلفياتها الفكرية والوقوف على حدودها المعرفية. واستعان المؤلف بالعمل الذي أنجزه الباحثان جون شارون Jean Charron وجون دوبنفيل Jean de Bonville والذي يتضمن مقاربة نظرية ومنهجية لمختلف مراحل تطور الصحافة.

وإن وصف البعض حالة صحافة اليوم بحالة الفوضى فإن ذلك يعود إلى استنادهم على البيئة الإعلامية الجديدة التي تسعى إلى ”محو الحدود بين وسائل الإعلام الكلاسيكية والميديا الجديدة“ من جهة وإلى ما ترتب عن ” الانتقال من وسائل الاتصال الجماهيري إلى وسائل الاتصال الجماهرية الفردية”. وشهد ذلك تمردا على القواعد والمعايير الصحفيّة المتعارف عليها والخروج عن نطاق السيطرة وعدم التحكم في الظواهر الاجتماعية.

ولقد انطلقت الصعوبات التي تواجهها الصحافة اليوم منذ الحرب العالمية الثانية بعد أن عانت من غياب الحرية تحت لواء الأنظمة الدكتاتورية. ثمّ رافق تطور وظائف الصحافة مجموعة من المتغيرات داخل المؤسسة الصحفية وخارجها. ممّا ساهم بدوره في تجاوز أشكالها التعبيرية القديمة وتغير خطابها.

وأكد الباحث أن الصحافة لم تلد مكتملة النمووفي شكل نهائيّ، فالإخراج الصحفي تطور وفق المدارس الإخراجية الجمالية المختلفة ولم يتجسد دفعة واحدة.  كما لم تولد الأنواع الصحفية بدورها دفعة واحدة، بل أخذت مسالك مختلفة باختلاف الخصائص. وتطورت مع الوقت المنصات الاكترونية وتعددت وسائل الاتصال فأصبحنا نتحدث عن المدونات. وأثناء ذلك تعددت أشكال الصحافة لنتحدث في البداية عن صحافة النقل التي تقوم على إعادة النشر بوسيلة إعلامية أخرى. ثم أصبحنا نتحدث عن صحافة الرأي خلال القرن 19 فتحولت الصحف إلى منابر للمعارك السياسية. لتنشأ ما بين نهاية القرن 19 وبداية القرن 20 صحافة الأخبار التي سعت إلى تنظيم مهنة الصحافة، ممّا مهد الطريق فيما بعد لصحافة الاتصال وانتقل الإعلام من التركيز على الحدث إلى التركيز على بناء علاقة مع الجمهور. وتأتي صحافة البيانات التي تزامنت مع ثورة الانترنت إمتدادا للأشكال التي عرفتها الصحافة خلال القرون الماضية، كما يبيّنه الجدول التالي:

 

نماذج الصحافة عبر تطورها

 

حقوق الصورة:

Flicker :ChCharlou

وسوم:

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